Malformations lymphatiques [ Publications ]

malformations lymphatiques [ Publications ]

Publications > malformations lymphatiques

  • Lymphatic malformations (LM) are the most frequent vascular malformations. There are three types of lesions involving lymphatic development that must be included in LM: vascular anomalies and knots (truncal malformations [TLM]), cystic anomalies, superficial or deep, uni- or multicystic (extratruncal malformations [ETLM]) and hemolymphatic anomalies which combine venous, arterial, or capillary malformations with LM. ETLM can be ubiquitously distributed but most are located in the cervical or axillary regions. Most ETLM are diagnosed at birth and in 80-90% of the cases before the age of 2. The clinical aspects are extremely variable: superficial ETLM (vesicular) and deep ETLM, localised or diffuse, mono- or multicystic. TLM are generally located on a lower limb with neonatal lymphatic oedema (often in a polymalformation context). All forms of the hemolymphatic combination can be identified. They are generally located on the limbs and are often unilateral. They are usually sporadic but can also be can be found in polymalformation syndromes (Klippel-Trénaunay, Parkes-Weber, Protée, Maffucci). ETLM generally tend to increase in volume and spread with age with stabilisation at puberty. They do not tend to spontaneously regress. Specific local complications can have serious consequences. They are linked to haemorrhaging, infections and compression phenomena. There can also be complications such as skeletal and soft tissue hypertrophy.

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Indications des lasers dans le traitement des malformations lymphatiques.

  • Cutaneous dermatologic lesions of LM, in type of superficial, translucent, localized or diffuse vesicles, are accessible to laser treatment. The useful lasers are essentially laser CO(2), and rarely pulsed dye laser and the Nd: YAG. Treatment by laser allows to obtain the ablation of vesicles by limiting aftereffects (scare) and so to dry up the transcutaneous lymphatic liquid. However laser has no action on the deep constituent of the LM and it's why medium and long term recurrences are inevitable. Finally, the indication of the laser must be retained only as a supplement to the surgery and has to be done by experimented persons.

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Traitement chirurgical des malformations lymphatiques.

  • Lymphatic malformations remain a therapeutic challenge. Many treatments by the past led to poor success. The wide variety of clinical presentations makes it difficult to outline specific management programs. Often, diagnosis or complication circumstances as infection, bleeding, airway obstruction, or handicap force acting. Thus, a specific follow-up joined to a multidisciplinary analysis are the key of well-planned surgery. Through our experience and a review of literature, we will describe principles of lymphatic malformations surgery and specific technics for specific locations.

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Malformations lymphatiques: traitement percutané.

  • Management of cystic lymphangioma necessitate for optimal diagnosis and treatment the expertise of a trained multidisciplinary team including dermatologists, radiologists, plastic and vascular surgeons. An initial imaging work-up of these lesions by ultrasound Doppler examination and MR imaging are necessary before treatment planning. Depending of the size, the location, the risk for the adjacent organs, a therapeutic decision may be mandatory. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is a safe and efficient treatment. It is the treatment of choice that must be proposed in first intention.

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